Thursday, October 8, 2009

Hubble Photo Explanation

The Hubble 9/9/9 images are taken under infrared, because their real colors are not visible to the human eye, and so infrared allows UV rays and other colors in spectrums outside of our own visibility (like gamma rays) to come out.

We use infrared when we can't see objects that do not emit light within our spectrum of vision. For example, that is why infrared is used at night, because we can't see those objects, even though their colors and existence are clearly there. Nocturnal animals can see colors that we can't see. Our visibility is very limited and so is our ability to see certain colors.

According to Hubble's site (I've highlighted key passages and my texts are in blue):

Every 97 minutes, Hubble completes a spin around Earth, moving at the speed of about five miles per second (8 km per second) — fast enough to travel across the United States in about 10 minutes. As it travels, Hubble's mirror captures light and directs it into its several science instruments.

Hubble is a type of telescope known as a Cassegrain reflector. Light hits the telescope's main mirror, or primary mirror. It bounces off the primary mirror and encounters a secondary mirror. The secondary mirror focuses the light through a hole in the center of the primary mirror that leads to the telescope's science instruments.

People often mistakenly believe that a telescope's power lies in its ability to magnify objects. Telescopes actually work by collecting more light than the human eye can capture on its own. The larger a telescope's mirror, the more light it can collect, and the better its vision. Hubble's primary mirror is 94.5 inches (2.4 m) in diameter. This mirror is small compared with those of current ground-based telescopes, which can be 400 inches (1,000 cm) and up, but Hubble's location beyond the atmosphere gives it remarkable clarity.

Once the mirror captures the light, Hubble's science instruments work together or individually to provide the observation. Each instrument is designed to examine the universe in a different way.

The Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) sees three different kinds of light: near-ultraviolet, visible and near-infrared, though not simultaneously.(This is because, humans cannot see certain colors outside of our cornea's spectral capabilities. The Earth's atmosphere also contributes to making it more difficult for us to clearly spot nebulae, galaxies, clusters, etc. That is why stargazing works best on a clear night away from polluted cities, including man-made light pollution. Mountains, deserts, oceans, and camping destinations free from human civilization are best. Ignore the astronomers' use of the word 'dark matter' or 'dark energy'. There is no such thing. Something isn't dark in reality, just because we cannot see it through our cornea.) Its resolution and field of view are much greater than that of Hubble's other instruments. WFC3 is one of Hubble's two newest instruments, and will be used to study dark energy and dark matter, the formation of individual stars and the discovery of extremely remote galaxies previously beyond Hubble's vision.

The Cosmic Origins Spectrograph (COS), Hubble's other new instrument, is a spectrograph that sees exclusively in ultraviolet light. Spectrographs acts something like prisms, separating light from the cosmos into its component colors. This provides a wavelength "fingerprint" of the object being observed, which tells us about its temperature, chemical composition, density, and motion. COS will improve Hubble's ultraviolet sensitivity at least 10 times, and up to 70 times when observing extremely faint objects.

The Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) sees visible light, and is designed to study some of the earliest activity in the universe. ACS helps map the distribution of dark matter, detects the most distant objects in the universe, searches for massive planets, and studies the evolution of clusters of galaxies. ACS partially stopped working in 2007 due to an electrical short, but was repaired during Servicing Mission 4 in May 2009.

The Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) is a spectrograph that sees ultraviolet, visible and near-infrared light, and is known for its ability to hunt black holes. While COS works best with small sources of light, such as stars or quasars, STIS can map out larger objects like galaxies. STIS stopped working due to a technical failure on August 3, 2004, but was also repaired during Servicing Mission 4.

The Near Infrared Camera and Multi-Object Spectrometer (NICMOS) is Hubble's heat sensor. Its sensitivity to infrared light — perceived by humans as heat — lets it observe objects hidden by interstellar dust, like stellar birth sites, and gaze into deepest space.

Finally, the Fine Guidance Sensors (FGS) are devices that lock onto "guide stars" and keep Hubble pointed in the right direction. They can be used to precisely measure the distance between stars, and their relative motions.

All of Hubble's functions are powered by sunlight. Hubble sports solar arrays that convert sunlight directly into electricity. (This is generically called zero-point energy, where electricity is harnessed into a device, such as the Great Pyramid of Giza, due to the sensical fact that electricity is all around us and within us, in nature. So, why do we have to pay for it and why do we have to be 'connected' to it? Anyone in the air, underground, or around that device within a certain distance should be able to access that condensed electricity wi-fi style. Electricity is abundantly existent in the aether. It's like paying to breathe air (though in some sense, we do pay!). Why don't people question that, instead of having to fight over fossil fuels like the megalomaniacs that we have become?)Some of that electricity is stored in batteries that keep the telescope running when it's in Earth's shadow, blocked from the Sun's rays.




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